Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences

: 2019  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 59--61

Abstract Proceeding


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. Abstract Proceeding.J Mahatma Gandhi Inst Med Sci 2019;24:59-61

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. Abstract Proceeding. J Mahatma Gandhi Inst Med Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 12 ];24:59-61
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 Attitude and Perception of Undergraduate Medical Students Toward Use of Social Media: A Cross-Sectional Survey

Apurva Potharkar, Ruchi Kothari1, M. R. Shende2, Pradeep Bokariya2

IIIrd MBBS Student, Departments of 1Physiology and 2Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.


Context: Over the years, social media and networking sites have metamorphosed from few user-based sites into phenomena that have become niches for billions of users. The undergraduate students and teachers both are becoming more techno-savvy that helps in promoting use of social media for teaching and learning activities. This study is concerned with observing the trend of use of the social media and sites by the students. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the attitude and perception of undergraduate students regarding the use of social media. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey. Study Subjects: Four hundred undergraduate medical students from Vidarbha region were employed in this study. Materials and Methods: Four hundred undergraduate medical students were employed in this study to derive responses to a self-constructed questionnaire consisting of about 25 items, divided under 4 aspects, i.e., education, collaborative learning, social innovativeness, and personal innovativeness. Data collection was done with the help of printed questionnaire sheets and Google forms. Experiences were collected on the basis of students' views, actual practices, and their own experiences. Statistical data analysis was done using mean score obtained by application SPSS (IBM, Version 25). Results: Out of 400 respondents, 99.5% admitted the use of Internet with 98.8% confirming the use of social media. Majority of the respondents in the items accept WhatsApp (95.8%), YouTube (86.6%), and Wikipedia (73.2%) as the various categories of social network sites used by them. Regarding the duration, 41.7% students spend less than 2 h while 29.8% spend 2–4 h on using social media. Questionnaire-based study showed that undergraduate students are using social media for social, entertainment, and education purposes such as for connecting with friends and family; for exchanging information to know updates in technology and health care; and for professional development, while some consider it as addiction, communication barrier, and study distracter. Students stated that social media emphasizes on freedom of expression and also in respecting opinions of others. Conclusion: This study addressed usage of social media by students, and it was found that they supported the idea of using social sites academically. It was suggested that online groups can be used as study groups to share information, discuss and interact with each other, and provide students with accessibility to more education-related information. Keywords: Social media, teaching, online

 Measurement of Orbital Dimensions (Orbital Height, Orbital Breadth, and Length of Superior Orbital Fissure) Using Dry Skulls

Aakanksha Shukla, Pradeep Bokariya1

IIIrd MBBS Student, 1Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.


Context: Anthropometry is the scientific study of the measurements and proportions of the human body. Anthropometric studies are an integral part of craniofacial surgery and syndromology. Each orbital cavity is essentially intended as a socket for the eyeball. Assessment of orbital dimensions is important for knowing the anatomy of orbital structures and surgical management of orbital and craniofacial pathologies. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the orbital index and length of superior orbital fissure and to compare the anthropometric measurements of the right and left orbits. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the Anatomy Department, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, after ethics clearance. It was a cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: Forty dried skulls were measured. The measurements for the dimensions of the orbital cavities were taken directly using a digital Vernier caliper calibrated in millimeters except interdistance between lateral walls which was estimated by spreading caliper. The parameters investigated in our study were orbital height, orbital breadth, length of superior orbital fissure, and interdistance between medial walls and interdistance between lateral walls of orbits. Each reading was repeated thrice, and the mean of the three was recorded and expressed as mean ± standard deviation and range. Orbital index was calculated using the formula:

OI = orbital height/orbital breadth × 100

Taking the orbital index as the standard, three classes of orbit were described – megaseme (large): the orbital index is 89 or over, mesoseme (intermediate): the orbital index range is between 89 and 83, and microseme: orbital index is 83 or less. Observations: Mean orbital height of the right orbit of the dry skulls was 31.94 ± 2.91 mm and left orbit was 31.85 ± 3.34 mm, and mean orbital breadth of the right orbit was 39.6 ± 1.88 mm and left orbit was 39.91 ± 2.65 mm. The mean interdistance between medial walls of orbits was 21.62 ± 1.08 mm. The mean interdistance between lateral walls of orbits was 94.28 ± 4.45 mm. Mean length of the right superior orbital fissure of the dry skulls was 1.39 ± 0.21 cm and left orbital fissure was 1.4 ± 0.24 cm. The mean orbital index of the right orbit was 80.9 and left orbit was 80.2. Paired t-test demonstrated no significant statistical difference between the right and left orbits (P > 0.05). About 14% of the skulls measured were megaseme, 20% were mesoseme, and majority (66%) were microseme. Discussion and Clinical Implications: Orbital dimensions' measurement is essential for measuring bony parameters which are different for different races. It is important clinically when correcting orbital fractures and bony pathology of the orbit including hypertelorism and craniosynostosis. The values thus obtained in our study can be correlated with two clinical conditions such as telecanthus and hypertelorism. Further clinical implication of the study lies in reconstructive management of fractures and various orbital pathologies in the Indian population. Keywords: Anthropometry, orbital anatomy, orbital index

 Study of Alterations of Visually Evoked Responses in Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Looking Beyond Horizon

Hemavaishnave TS, Ruchi Kothari1, Pradeep Bokariya2, Jyoti Jain3, Smita Singh4

IInd MBBS Student, Departments of 1Physiology, 2Anatomy, 3Medicine and 4Ophthalmology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.


Background: Visually evoked potential (VEP) test evaluates how the visual system responds to light. As it tests the function of the visual pathway from the retina to the occipital cortex, VEP is a useful clinical tool in the diagnosis and documentation of visual impairment in many ophthalmological disorders. Diabetic retinopathy is usually considered to be a disease of retinal blood vessels but is rarely thought of, in a wider sense, as a neurosensory disorder. Changes in the retina caused by diabetes may lead to visual impairment in dim light, even with good visual acuity and visual fields. Although abnormalities within the peripheral nervous system are well documented in diabetes, changes within the central nervous system, and particularly their relationship to visual function, have received much less attention. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the abnormalities of VEPs in type 2 diabetic patients when compared with the age-matched controls. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the neurophysiology unit of the department of physiology of a rural medical college of Central India. The study population consisted of 30 patients diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 30 age-matched controls after proper screening as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Both the eyes of two groups of the participants were included in the study. Settings and Study Design: This was a tertiary care rural hospital-based, single-time assessment, short-term observational study. Methodology: The stimulus configuration consisted of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checkerboard is generated (full field) on a VEP monitor by an electronic pattern regenerator inbuilt in an evoked potential recorder (RMS EMG EP MARK II manufactured by Recorders & Medicare Systems, Chandigarh). Results: In VEPs recorded with stimulation with a single-size pattern, abnormal VEPs were recorded in 26.67% cases of type 2 DM. Anomalous VEP was recorded as significant (P < 0.05) with prolongation of P100 latency and reduction in amplitude in diabetic patients compared to the control group. A significant difference between the latencies from both the eyes was observed in 20% cases. There was no statistically significant correlation between the age, duration of the disease, coexisting clinical complications or metabolic compensation, and the abnormal recordings. Conclusion: Diabetes despite the progress in therapy causes various complications including the visual impairment. The evaluation of VEPs gives the possibility to detect subclinical features of visual tract damage. Measurement of P100 latency and amplitude has emerged as an important useful marker which may help to probably identify those visual defects which remain obscure in ophthalmoscopy so that the major chunk of diabetic patients could be rescued before falling prey to diabetic retinopathy. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, P100 amplitude, P100 latency, pattern reversal

 Nutritional Status of Children in the Age Group of 6-10 Years and its Determinants: A Cohort Study of Children Born in 2007–2011

Madhur Shroff, Subodh S. Gupta1

IInd MBBS Student, 1Department of Community Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.


Context: India has one of the highest prevalences of childhood malnutrition. Nutritional deficiency during childhood is expected to continue when these children grow up as older children and adolescents. However, there is a lack of information regarding malnutrition and its determinants for children aged 6–10 years. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the current nutritional status of children aged 6–10 years and to identify factors affecting their nutritional status. Study Design: This was a cohort study. Study Subjects: Children born in village Warud in 2007–2011 were included in the study. Methods: A cohort of children born in 2007–2011 in Warud village was identified. Weight of children at 1, 2, and 3 years was recorded from the Anganwadi growth charts. Current weight, height, and information regarding social determinants of health (including socioeconomic status and schooling of parents) were recorded for 59 children. Z-score was calculated for weight for age (W/A), height for age, and body mass index (BMI) for age using the WHO Anthro and AnthroPlus software. In-depth interview was conducted to understand household child-caring practices (including dietary practices and adult interaction with children) for 12 children, 4 children with improvement in W/A Z-score by 0.5, 4 children with deterioration in W/A z-score by 0.5, and 4 children whose W/A Z-score remained within 0.5 of their previous z-score at 1–3 years. Results: High percentage of children belonging to joint family were found to be more underweight (63.6%) and stunted (54.5%), as compared to children belonging to nuclear family (underweight – 39.6%, stunted – 31.2%). Children with age gap of 2 or less years with the sibling were found to be more underweight (68.4%) and stunted (54.4%), as compared to the children having age gap of more than 2 years or with no sibling (underweight = 43%, stunted = 40%). The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and low BMI was more in children with less educated father and mother. Occupation of the father was found to be associated with the child's nutritional status. Out of the 59 study participants, weight at the age of 1, 2, and 3 years was available for 37 study participants. Out of 37 children, 8 (21.6) have improved with change in z-score >0.5, change in z-score remained same ± 0.5 for 15 (40.5) children, and change in z-score declined by >0.5 for 14 children. On the basis of change in value of z-score, three groups of children were made and 4 children were randomly selected for each group for detailed interrogation. Children who experienced significant improvement in W/A z-score showed to have regular eating habit (fixed time for eating, no TV while meals, use to eat egg, etc.) and various efforts taken by mother to make his/her child eat all vegetables and other food items (mothers have changed the way of cooking food).

 Determinants of Social and Emotional Development among Preschool Children (3–6 Years): A Cross-Sectional Study

Mohamed Khader Meeran, Subodh Gupta1

Final MBBS Student, 1Department of Community Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.


Context: In developing countries, more than 200 million children under 5 years of age are not developing to their full potential. Lack of early childhood development promotion results in 20% loss of developmental potential for adults. Nearly one-fifth of the world's children are in India. However, there is a paucity of data in rural area, about the socioeconomic variables which influence the social emotional development of children. Aims: The objective of the study was to find the determinants of home environment as well as social and emotional development among preschool children. Materials and Methods: The community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 141 rural preschool children (3–6 years) during June 2017–July 2017. A child's home environment and learning opportunities are measured with preschool HOME inventory and compared with the outcome child's emotional development using SEAM Family Profile Questionnaire. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel, and multiple linear regression was using R version 3.4.0 to find the determinants for a child's home environment and social and emotional development. Results: The final model of multiple regression for total HOME score included mother's years of schooling, mother's occupation, father's years of schooling, father's education, mother's working hours, and father's working hours. Compared with fathers who were unemployed, the HOME score was higher by 13.6 points for fathers who were unskilled laborer, by 17.3 points for fathers who were skilled laborer and 20.5. Compared to mothers who were housewives, the HOME score was lower by 16 points for mothers who were involved in unskilled or skilled work. In addition, with each additional hour of working for mothers, the HOME score increased by 0.34 points. For every year of schooling of mothers, the HOME score improved by 0.7. The final model of for total SEAM score included total HOME score, mother's working hours and father's working hours, type of ration card, and type of playschool attended by the child. Compared to families with APL card, the SEAM score was lower by 6.3 points for children with family having BPL card, 11.7 points lower for families with Antyodaya card, and 6.5 points lower if the ration card was not available in the family. Children who did not attend a playschool had a score 10.6 points lower compared to children who attended Anganwadi center. In addition, for each point increase in total HOME score, the SEAM score increased by 0.2 points. For each hour of increase in working time for mothers and fathers, the SEAM score was lower by 0.1 points. Keywords: Child development, home environment, social and emotional development

 Study of Clinical and Demographic Pattern of Thyroid Profile Investigation in Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory of a Tertiary Care Rural Hospital

Shambhavi Chowdhary, Kalyan Goswami1

IIIrd MBBS Student, 1Department of Biochemistry, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.


Context: Laboratory investigations form an integral part of the clinical practice, aiding in diagnosis and prognosis. The advent of the concept of evidence-based medicine and the automation of laboratory procedures has led to an increase in the number of test requisitions. Under such circumstances, assessment of laboratory functioning, via a laboratory audit, would enable us to understand the requirements of the population and strengthen the clinician laboratory alliance. In recent times, noncommunicable diseases including endocrine disorders have demonstrated an upward trend. Thyroid profile, which reflects an individual's physiological condition and pathological states, forms an ideal parameter for the study of laboratory function. Aims: The aim of this study is (1) to categorize the requisitions of thyroid profile on the basis of certain clinical and basic demographic factors and (2) to explore whether any possible correlation can be drawn to associate results of the tests with the studied clinicodemographic factors. Settings and Design: Retrospective secondary data analysis of thyroid profile requisitions was carried out in clinical Biochemistry Laboratory of Kasturba Hospital, Sevagram. Materials and Methods: The data for thyroid assays were obtained from the hospital information services records for the December 2015–December 2017. Five hundred fresh requisitions were retrieved. The available data were then segregated as per various clinical and demographic parameters. These cases were then traced forward for a period of 2 years, i.e., up to December 2017. Repeat investigations and dropouts in this time frame were recorded. The outcome of the investigations was studied, and an attempt was made to find possible correlation with the available clinical and demographic parameters. Statistical Analysis Used: Appropriate descriptive statistical methods have been used for presentation of the data obtained. Results: About 70% requisitions were from the outpatient department (OPD) with female predominance across all categories. A peak was observed in the reproductive age group. Department of Medicine contributed most to the OPD investigations and department of Obstretics ang Gynecology in the indoor patients in the requisitions. Majority requisitions were for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) alone. Less than one-fifth requisitions showed deviations from reference range. TSH although frequently carried out showed less than one-fourth deviations. fT4 showed maximum conversion from clinical suspicion to biochemical confirmation. There were also a large number of patients with deranged results, in whom repeat tests were not conducted. Conclusions: A large proportion of negative results indicate that thyroid panel is being used as a screening tool, rather than a specific marker of disease. It may also indicate response to therapy in repeat cases. fT4 is diagnostically informative, showing maximum posttest versus pretest probabilities. A large number of dropouts represent false decrease in sampling load. Keywords: Clinical biochemistry, laboratory audit, thyroid profile