|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 154-157
Solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas: A rare case
BB Gupta, Chandratej Kadam, SS Changole, V Nandagawali
Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Web Publication||31-Aug-2016|
B-2 Anuradha Co-operative Housing Society Opp., Golf Club Rest House, Golf Club Road, Near Chandak Circle, Nashik - 422 002, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) accounts for only 1–2% of pancreatic neoplasm. It occurs predominantly in young females. These are slow growing tumor having low-grade malignant potential with good long-term survival rate after complete resection. Due to its rarity, there are no large published series in a single institution and multicenter studies being necessary for its deeper understanding. We report one such rare case of SPN. A 19 year old female presenting with vague abdominal pain and no other significant Symptoms and after all investigations was found to have mass in the head of pancreas. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with complete resection of tumor mass was done. Histopathological features were suggestive of SPN with tumor-free margins. There were no signs of local or distant metastasis and is under 2 monthly follow-up for last 8 months
Keywords: Complete resection, pancreaticoduodenectomy, solid pseudopapillary
|How to cite this article:|
Gupta B B, Kadam C, Changole S S, Nandagawali V. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas: A rare case. J Mahatma Gandhi Inst Med Sci 2016;21:154-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Gupta B B, Kadam C, Changole S S, Nandagawali V. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas: A rare case. J Mahatma Gandhi Inst Med Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Feb 19];21:154-7. Available from: http://www.jmgims.co.in/text.asp?2016/21/2/154/189534
| Introduction|| |
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) accounts for only 1–2% of pancreatic neoplasm., It occurs predominantly in young females with peak incidence between 20 and 30 years of age. It is frequently asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. It is characterized by well capsulated, slow growing tumor having low-grade malignant potential. Most patients show good long-term survival rate after complete resection. It is also known as Hamoudi tumor, Frantz tumor, solid and cystic tumor, papillary cystic neoplasm, and papillary epithelial neoplasm. In 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified these tumors as solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas. Due to its rarity, there are no large published series in a single institution and multicenter studies being necessary for its deeper understanding. We report one such rare case of SPN being managed successfully at our institute.
| Case Report|| |
A 19-year-old female resident of Amravati, Maharashtra, came to our institute with chief complaints of vague pain in abdomen on and off since 6 months. It was not associated with any aggravating or relieving factors. She had no other specific complaints or significant family history. On examination, she had palpable lump of size 4 cm × 4 cm mainly in the epigastric region which was well felt on standing than in supine position. There was no other significant finding. All routine blood investigations were within normal limit. Ultrasonography of abdomen showed an ill-defined heterogeneous solid cystic lesion of size 5.7 cm × 6.4 cm in relation to the head and uncinate process of pancreas, showing mild vascularity and few tiny calcification within. The lesion was surrounded by an ill-defined wall of thickness 2 mm of neoplastic etiology. However, it maintained fat planes with surrounding structure. Body and tail of pancreas were appeared normal. Main pancreatic duct was not dilated. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen was done which showed similar findings as shown in [Figure 1]. Postcontrast films pointed the lesion to be in close proximity of superior mesenteric vein and superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Moreover, the likely differentials were serious cyst adenoma or pancreatic adenoma.
On the basis of the above findings, pancreaticoduodenectomy was planned for this patient. Intraoperatively as shown in [Figure 2], there was a mass of about 6 cm × 6 cm located at the head and uncinate process of pancreas which was abutting the inferior vena cava and SMA. After careful dissection, pancreaticoduodenectomy along with cholecystectomy was done followed by gastrojejunostomy, pancreaticojejunostomy, and choledocojejunostomy. Specimen, as shown in [Figure 3], was sent for histopathological examination. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 10th postoperative day.
|Figure 2: Intraoperative photographs showing 6 cm × 6 cm mass in the head of pancreas|
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|Figure 3: Specimen photographs of pancreatic mass (red arrow) with c loop of duodenum (blue arrow)|
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Histopathological report as shown in [Figure 4] was suggestive of SPN with all margins of the specimen free from tumor infiltration and no lymph nodal metastasis.
|Figure 4: Histopathological features of solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor (typical papillary process with solid and cystic area)|
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| Discussion|| |
SPT of the pancreas is a rare exocrine pancreatic tumor, which represents only about 1% of all tumors of the pancreas. Lichtenstein gave the first description of SPN when he reported a large pancreatic tail mass in a young woman with peritoneal carcinomatosis. However, the first unequivocal account was a series of three cases with detailed pathologic descriptions by Frantz in 1959. Hamoudi et al. were the first to characterize the pathognomonic electron microscopic features of pancreatic SPNs. For this reason, some refer to these lesions as Frantz tumors or Hamoudi-Frantz tumors. Different names for this tumor were reported until it was defined by the WHO in 1996 as a “SPT” of the pancreas. There are very few case reports and small series of pancreatic SPN in the world literature. The largest series comprised 718 cases and was published by Papavramidis and Papavramidis in 2005., They noted that the majority of the reports originated from Europe, Japan, and North America. There are very few cases reported in India.
The origin of SPTs is unclear. Many investigators favor the theory that SPTs originate from multipotent primordial cells, whereas others suggest an extrapancreatic origin, from genital ridge angle-related cells. These tumors generally occur in young female with mean age of presentation is 22 years. It is not symptomatic most of the times; however, sometimes patient may present with symptoms from mass effect such as vomiting and early satiety due to gastric outlet obstruction. Jaundice is not a common feature. In Papavramidis' series, only 1% of patients with pancreatic head tumors were jaundiced. Our patient presented with vague abdominal pain without any such symptoms.
These tumors can be visualized in many imaging modalities, such as ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging, which can be used to differentiate it from other pancreatic lesions. Encapsulated, well-defined mass with central areas of calcification, necrosis, hemorrhage, and/or cystic degenerations are the characteristic findings. In both the arterial and venous phases, there is usually peripheral enhancement with similar Hounsfield unit density as the nearby pancreatic parenchyma. This differs from adenocarcinomas that are usually hypoattenuated on venous phase CT and from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors that enhance on the arterial phase CT. Preoperative tissue diagnosis is not indicated. Blood investigations or markers have no specific role in the diagnosis.
Patients with resectable lesions who are candidates for operation should be treated by en bloc resection with clear margins, since this provides the best chance for cure and good long-term survival rate.
Even in the presence of poor prognosticators (lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, local extension, nodal disease, and liver metastases) that traditionally predict malignant behavior, there are still relatively good outcomes compared to adenocarcinomas., Hence, resection is advisable even in those cases. In our case, we achieved a complete resection of tumor with clear margins. Role of chemotherapy in advance stages is still under trial. Our patient had no local or region metastasis, hence no further treatment was required. Our patient is being followed every two monthly and has no significant complaints even after 8 months.
| Conclusion|| |
Pancreatic pseudopapillary tumors are rare neoplasms with malignant potential found in young females. Formal surgical resection may be performed safely and is associated with long-term survival. Because long-term survival can be achieved, patients with SPN should be treated aggressively with complete resection.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]