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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8-11

Nutrition in burn patient


Department of General Surgery, Sardar Patel Medical College Bikaner, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Date of Web Publication4-Mar-2016

Correspondence Address:
Prabhu Dayal Sinwar
New PG Hostel, Room No. 28, Sardar Patel Medical College Bikaner, Bikaner, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9903.178072

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  Abstract 

Burn injury continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional support has become an essential element of burn care. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multi organ dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Failure to adequately address the increased levels of inflammatory mediators, catecholamines, and corticosteroids central to the hypermetabolic response postburn injury can lead to catastrophic results. One of the most important perturbations is provision of adequate and early nutrition. The provision of the right balance of macro and micronutrients, along with additional antioxidants is essential to mitigate the hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic state that results following a burn injury.

Keywords: Burns, enteral nutrition, nutrition, parenteral nutrition


How to cite this article:
Sinwar PD. Nutrition in burn patient . J Mahatma Gandhi Inst Med Sci 2016;21:8-11

How to cite this URL:
Sinwar PD. Nutrition in burn patient . J Mahatma Gandhi Inst Med Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Aug 17];21:8-11. Available from: http://www.jmgims.co.in/text.asp?2016/21/1/8/178072


  Introduction Top


Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Enteral nutrition in burned patients should begin within few hours of burn onset. Such approach leads to better clinical outcomes for patients, reduces infections, and improves nutritional profile. The assurance of the needs of nutritional factors and energy is essential for patients having more than 20% of the body surface (BS) burned. Burn patients with >20% BS area injury suffer a long and severe response to injury, including a hyperdynamic and hypermetabolic response with lipolysis, proteolysis, glycolysis, and fever. This catabolic state ultimately results in a profound reduction of lean body mass. Poor wound healing, immune dysfunction, multiorgan failure (MOF), and even death can ensue. [1]


  Methods Top


We performed a MEDLINE database search using the PubMed search engine with the Medical Subject Heading words such as "nutrition in burn patients," "enteral nutrition in burn patient," "parenteral nutrition in burn patient" of systematic reviews of full text article written in English and they were taken into account.


  Review and Discussion Top


Severe burn injury is associated with metabolic alterations that persist up to 2 years postburn. [2] Immediately after injury, patients enter a period of attenuated metabolism and decreased tissue perfusion, also referred to as the "ebb" phase. Shortly after, they enter a phase of hypermetabolic rates and hyperdynamic circulation, known as the "flow" state. [3] A 10% loss of total body mass leads to immune dysfunction; 20% to decreased wound healing; 30% to severe infections; and 40% to death. [4] The protein loss is directly related to increases in metabolic rate and may persist for up to 24 months postburn, often resulting in significantly negative whole-body and cross-leg nitrogen balances. [5],[6],[7] Severely burned patients have a nitrogen loss of 20-25 g/m 2 total BS area (TBSA)/day, [6] which - if unattended - results in lethal cachexia in <30 days.

Experimental evidence has demonstrated that enteral nutrition influences the physiologic response to injury. Animal models using guinea pigs demonstrate that early enteral nutrition significantly reduces the hypermetabolic response to injury. [8],[9] Rat models show that enteral nutrition can decrease the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, when compared with parenteral routes. [10]

Bacterial translocation and loss of gut mucosal integrity has also been shown in the host response to burn injury. [11],[12] The resulting intestinal injury may influence systemic injury and MOF. [13] Enteral nutrition helps to maintain gut mucosa viability and decreases bacterial translocation. [14] Introduction of nutrients to enhance the immune response shows promise in blunting the inflammatory response and improving the intestinal immune response. [15],[16],[17],[18] Finally, even in the acute phase of the injury, the bowel tolerates enteral feeding despite slower transit times. [19] Over the past decade, numerous studies have been conducted to clarify the role of the gastrointestinal system as an immune organ. [20] The presence of food in the gut is important for intestinal cells' nutrition by diffusion from the lumen: 50% enterocytes and 70% cells in colon meet energy needs from the lumen. In addition, the food in the intestine is a stimulus for the secretion of digestive enzymes, for the establishment of intestinal motility, and for satisfactory intestinal circulation. [21]

Gudaviciene et al. [22] in a retrospective study confirmed that incidence of inflammatory complications of burn disease is lower when introducing enteral nutrition within 24 h of the occurrence of burns. Lam et al., [23] in a prospective randomized study, demonstrated that early enteral nutrition contributed to increased cellular and humoral immunity in burned patients. Multi organ failure is the most serious complication of burn disease with high mortality rate of 45%. [24] Burned patients have increased level of mortality, possibly due to late introduction of enteral feeding, namely, the absence of food in the intestinal lumen leads to impaired function of the immune system and the development of the inflammatory response, the state described with expression endogenous sepsis or gut derived sepsis. [25] This kind of nutrition is called trophic intestinal feeding (feeding the gut). [26] The early initiation of enteral nutrition support in the burn population is of utmost importance for survival. [27]

The composition of this enteral nutrition support is equally important. The provision of the right balance of macro and micronutrients, antioxidants, and energy is essential for mitigating the hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic state that results following a burn injury. [27] While there are no definitive trials that indicate clear superiority of early nutrition, clinical practice guidelines recommend starting enteral nutrition in critically ill patients within 24 h in burns and 24-48 h in mixed Intensive Care Unit populations. [28],[29],[30]

Since the early 1900s, it has been recognized that burn patients require an increased caloric intake. High caloric feeding was advocated by Shaffer et al. in 1909 [31] and more recently by Wilmore et al. in 1979. [32] Several formulas are used to calculate caloric requirement in burned patients. One formula multiplies the basal energy expenditure (BEE) determined by the Harris-Benedict formula by two in burns >40% TBSA, assuming a 100% increase in total energy expenditure (TEE). [33] TEE was 1.33 ± 0.27 times predicted BEE was measured by doubly labeled water method, and in studies where resting energy expenditure (REE) was simultaneously measured, TEE was 1.18 ± 0.17 times REE, which in turn was 1.16 ± 0.10 times predicted BEE. [34]

The macronutrients in the formulation of burn nutrition include carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Some research suggests that given the inhibition of lipolysis in the acute response to injury, lipids should be limited as a source of calories. [35] Comparison of high carbohydrate, high protein, low fat enteral feeds with low carbohydrate, high protein, and high fat formulas in a systematic way showed no clear benefit to either formula, although the risk of pneumonia appeared lower with the high carbohydrate formula. [36]

Increased catabolism of protein leads to losses of over 1 kg of skeletal muscle and visceral proteins a day. [37] Despite repletion with apparently adequate amounts of dietary protein and calories, protein catabolism exceeds anabolism, and weight loss following burn injury is inevitable. [38] Severely burned children who were fed 5 g/kg/day had better immune function, fewer days of bacteremia and antibiotics, and higher survival rates than similarly-injured children randomized to 3.8 g/kg/day. [39] Current recommendations are for 1.5-2 g/kg/day in adults and 3 g/kg/day in children. [40] Overfeeding can result in fluid and electrolyte imbalances, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis. [41] Protein appears to be an essential macronutrient for wound healing, and protein requirements in burn patients may be 50% higher than in healthy individuals. [42]

Critical illness and injury result in increased oxidative stress and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These molecules have been associated with MOF and acute respiratory distress syndrome. ROS may produce tissue injury through oxidation of enzymes and structural proteins, peroxidation of cell plasma membranes, and induction of apoptosis. [43] Immunonutrition refers to the use of nutrients that modify a patient's immune response during critical illness. Nutrients that have been used in burn patients include omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil), glutamine, and arginine. Glutamine is thought to be a conditionally essential amino acid in burns. It provides a nitrogen source, a fuel for immune cells, fuel for enterocytes, serves as a precursor for the antioxidant glutathione, and potentially reduces insulin resistance. [44] Arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid in burns, serves as a precursor proline and glutamate, promotes T-cell proliferation, stimulates insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and pituitary growth hormone, as well as promoting wound healing. Omega-3 fatty acids replace omega-6 fatty acids in cell membranes and decreases inflammation due to less inflammatory breakdown products. [44]


  Conclusion Top


Enteral nutrition support should be used in preference to parenteral nutrition support and should be provided in acute phase of recovery. For patients with burns covering more than 20% of their BS area, a high protein diet should be used with provision of adequate calories to meet energy needs. Adults should receive 1.5-2 g/kg/day and children should receive 3 g/kg/day.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

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Jeschke MG, Gauglitz GG, Kulp GA, Finnerty CC, Williams FN, Kraft R, et al. Long-term persistance of the pathophysiologic response to severe burn injury. PLoS One 2011;6:e21245.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Falder S, Silla R, Phillips M, Rea S, Gurfinkel R, Baur E, et al. Thiamine supplementation increases serum thiamine and reduces pyruvate and lactate levels in burn patients. Burns 2010;36:261-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Fan J, Meng Q, Guo G, Xie Y, Li X, Xiu Y, et al. Effects of early enteral nutrition supplemented with arginine on intestinal mucosal immunity in severely burned mice. Clin Nutr 2010;29:124-30.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
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Gudaviciene D, Rimdeika R, Adamonis K. Influence of enteral nutrition on the frequency of complications in case of major burns. Medicina (Kaunas) 2004;40:957-61.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
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24.
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