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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 119-122

Influence of practice on visual reaction time


Department of Physiology, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication11-Aug-2014

Correspondence Address:
Tejas P Ghuntla
"Maa Sharda", Plot No. 13, Sumeru Bunglows, Opp. Top-3 Cinema, Talaja Road, Bhavnagar - 364 002, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9903.138431

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  Abstract 

Background: The present study was aimed to see the effect of practice on visual information processing speed. Reaction time is one of the important physiological parameters, which gives information how fast and quickly person responses. Reaction is purposeful voluntary response to different stimuli as visual stimuli. Visual reaction time (VRT) is the time required to response to visual stimuli. Materials and Methods: The VRT was measured by the multiple choice apparatus in subjects. Simple reaction time and choice reaction time measured. Reaction time was measured in two sessions. In the first session, VRT was measured without practice of task and in the second session VRT was measured after practice of task. The results were statistically analyzed and were recorded as mean ± standard deviation and Student's paired t-test was applied to check the level of significance. Result and Conclusion: In the present study, we found that VRT was less after practice for both simple and choice VRT tasks. Reaction time decreases by practice. Skills can be improved by practice. In daily life majority of work is done by the use of visual information. By the practice of an important task time required for stimulus identification and response can be decreased. Practice is useful for driving vehicles. It is helpful to students, as they have identification of bones, instruments, graphs and viva questions in examination of various medical subjects. Hence by practice students can identify, understand and answer quickly.

Keywords: Choice, practice, reaction time, simple, visual


How to cite this article:
Ghuntla TP, Mehta HB, Gokhale PA, Shah CJ. Influence of practice on visual reaction time. J Mahatma Gandhi Inst Med Sci 2014;19:119-22

How to cite this URL:
Ghuntla TP, Mehta HB, Gokhale PA, Shah CJ. Influence of practice on visual reaction time. J Mahatma Gandhi Inst Med Sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Sep 17];19:119-22. Available from: http://www.jmgims.co.in/text.asp?2014/19/2/119/138431


  Introduction Top


Human body responses to the number of external environmental stimuli of different modalities. Human body gives a desired and purposeful voluntary response to stimulus. There is a certain time period between application of stimulus and appropriate motor response. There are various sensory modalities and human body responses to various stimuli with different speed. This plays an important role in everyday life.

Reaction time is defined as interval of time between presentation of stimulus and appearance of appropriate voluntary response in a subject. [1] Visual reaction time (VRT) is a time required to respond to visual stimuli. Reaction time becomes an important component of information processing as it indexes speed of stimulus processing and response programming. [2] Reaction time is one of the important physiological parameter which gives information how fast and quickly person responses.

Reaction time is having mainly two components. [3]

  1. Mental processing time: Which is the time required for responder to perceive stimulus, identifying and analyzing of stimulus and decide the proper motor response.
  2. Movement time: It is the time required to perform the movement after selection of response.


Luce [4] and Welford [5] described three types of reaction time. [6]

  1. Simple reaction time: Here there is one stimulus and one response.
  2. Recognition reaction time: Here there are some stimulus that should be responded to and other that should not get a response.
  3. Choice reaction time: Here, there are multiple stimulus and multiple responses.


By the practice of motor movements, muscular coordination and speed of movement can be improved which would improve movement time. Long lasting improvement in performing skilled motor movements can be achieved by training and retraining and repeated practicing. [7],[8],[9] The present study is carried out to see the effect of practice on visual information processing speed which is analyzed by measuring VRT. We compare VRT before practice and after practice for simple and choice reaction time task.


  Materials and Methods Top


The study was conducted among 50 male healthy subjects of Bhavnagar region. Subjects of 17-20 years included in the study. Personal history and medical history of all subjects was collected in pre-designed performa. Medical history was taken to rule out any medical or surgical disease which would affect reaction time of individual. After taking consent, reaction time was measured with multiple choice apparatus 653MP (reaction time apparatus), an Inco Company Product (Ambala), with accuracy of ± 0.001 s. VRT was measured under two categories:

  1. Simple reaction time, where subject has to respond to visual stimuli by pressing key and
  2. Choice reaction time, the subject had to respond to different coloured visual stimulus by pressing respective key.


Study was conducted in two sessions. In the first session, visual stimuli were given for 3 times and minimum reaction time was taken as a final reaction time for that sensory modality of that subject. In the second session, subjects were given practice session in which the subject responded to visual stimuli until near about constant values of reaction time come and then visual stimuli were given for 3 times and minimum reaction time was taken as a final reaction time for that sensory modality of that subject. In both sessions, simple reaction time and choice reaction time was measured.

Data was collected and was statistically analyzed. Reaction time was taken as mean ± standard deviation. The level of significance between before practice VRT and after practice VRT was tested by Students t-test (Paired). The observation was taken as a significant of P < 0.05.


  Result Top


VRT was measured in seconds for both simple and choice VRT task.

VRT found to be significantly (P < 0.05) less in after the practice session when compared with before practice session for simple reaction time task [Table 1].
Table 1: Difference in simple visual reaction time in before the practice session and after the practice session


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VRT found to be significantly (P < 0.05 ) less in after the practice session when compared with before practice session for choice reaction time task [Table 2].
Table 2: Difference in choice visual reaction time in before the practice session and after the practice session


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  Discussion Top


In the present study, we found that VRT was less after practice for both simple and choice VRT tasks which means that reaction time decreases after practice. This is in parallel with previous studies concluding that a practice decreases reaction time. [10],[11]

Several possible mechanisms have been described for this. People can acquire new motor skills and improve them with practice. [12] Learning of motor skill practice influenced on information processing. [10] With repetition of motion, person's conscious effort is decreased and the motion becomes more and more automatic. [13] Motor circuits of basal ganglia play a key role in the automatic execution of motor tasks. [14]

It was concluded in other study that mental practice influences the learning of cognitive activities. [15] Hence practice is useful in the skills having cognitive factors. Since information processing is also a mental process that affects response time, it is also influenced by practice. [16] Practice is an activity related to the nervous system and it can have a direct influence on memory and so it results in progress in performance. [17]

Mental practice can effectively cause motor improvement and performance. [18] In another study, it was found that reaction time to a visual stimulus decreased with 3 weeks of practice. [12] It was observed in other study that training older people to resist falls by stepping out to stabilize themselves did improve their reaction time. [19] The study of the response time for the pre-test and post-test in the mental practice group revealed that mental practice has a positive impact on response time so that it improves the response time of the subjects. [16]

It was found in the other study that in karate, more experienced practitioners had shorter reaction times. [20] One study concluded that training on a complex task both shortened reaction time and improved accuracy. [21] Mental imagery and practice is an activity related to the nervous system and it can have a direct influence on memory and so it results in progress in performance. [22]


  Conclusion Top


In daily life majority of work is done by use of visual information. VRT decreases with training and practice. This information can be useful in day-to-day regular life. By the practice of an important task time required for stimulus identification and response can be decreased. Person should have adequate practice of vehicle driving before he travels in traffic. It is helpful to students, as they have identification of bones, instruments, graphs and viva questions in examination of various medical subjects. So by practice students can identify, understand and answer quickly. This information is useful in physically reactive sports such as basketball, car racing. Apart from physical fitness, in sports, players must be quick reactive in different stages of the game. This reaction time can be improved by practice. Coach can improve reaction time of players by practice and improve their performance. Information from the study also useful in reactive jobs like army personals and fighter airplanes pilots. Here also by practice not only accuracy but fast reactivity improves which is utmost required for the army and air force personnel when they are in the face to face with the enemy.

 
  References Top

1.Jain AK. Reaction time (visual and auditory) and reflex time. Manual of Practical Physiology for MBBS. 4 th ed., Ch. 23. New Delhi: Avichal Publishing Company; 2012. p. 277-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Rao SL, Gangadhar BN, Keshavan MS, Hegde AS, Nardev G. Reaction time deficits in post traumatic syndrome. Indian J Psychiatry 1985;27:63-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
3.Green M. How long does it take to stop? Methodological analysis of driver perception-brake time. Transport Hum Fact 2000;2:195-216.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Luce RD. Response Times: Their Role in Inferring Elementary Mental Organization. New York: Oxford University Press; 1986.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Welford AT. Choice reaction time: Basic concepts. In: Welford AT, editor. Reaction Times. New York: Academic Press; 1980. p. 73-128.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Konsinski RJ. A literature review on reaction time. Clemson: Clemson University; Available from: http://www.biae.clemson.edu/bpc/bp/lab/110/reaction.htm. [Last updated on 2013 Sep ; Last cited on 2013 Sept 21].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Proctor RW, Dutta A. Skill acquisition and human performance. A J Psycho 1996;109:645-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Guadagnoli MA, Lee TD. Challenge point: A framework for conceptualizing the effects of various practice conditions in motor learning. J Mot Behav 2004;36:212-24.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Agostino R, Currà A, Soldati G, Dinapoli L, Chiacchiari L, Modugno N, et al. Prolonged practice is of scarce benefit in improving motor performance in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2004;19:1285-93.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Rostami HR, Ashayeri H. Effects of motor skill practice on reaction time and learning retention in Parkinson's disease. Neurol India 2009;57:768-71.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
11.Maylor EA, Rabbitt PM, James GH, Kerr SA. Effects of alcohol, practice, and task complexity on reaction time distributions. Q J Exp Psychol A 1992;44:119-39.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Ando S, Kida N, Oda S. Practice effects on reaction time for peripheral and central visual fields. Percept Mot Skills 2002;95:747-51.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Breines FB. Therapeutic occupations and modalities. In: Pendleton MH, Schultz-Krohn W, editors. Pedretti's Occupational Therapy Practice Skills for Physical Dysfunction. 6 th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2008. p. 658-84.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Marsden CD, Obeso JA. The functions of the basal ganglia and the paradox of stereotaxic surgery in Parkinson's disease. Brain 1994;117(Pt 4):877-97.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Guillot A, Collet C. Contribution from neurophysiological and psychological methods to the study of motor imagery. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005;50:387-97.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Mohammadpour M, Hashemian S, Yaghoubi H, Valiolah S, Vahid I, Armandnia M. The effect of mental practice on response time via Nelson's speed of movement. Eur J Exp Biol 2012;2:2444-50. Available from: http://www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com/european-journal-of-experimental-biology/vol2-iss6/EJEB-2012-2-6-2444-2450.pdf. [Last accessed on 2013 Sep 22].  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Deschaumes-Molinaro C, Dittmar A, Vernet-Maury E. Relationship between mental imagery and sporting performance. Behav Brain Res 1991;45:29-36.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Brouziyne M, Molinaro C. Mental imagery combined with physical practice of approach shots for golf beginners. Percept Mot Skills 2005;101:203-11.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Rogers MW, Johnson ME, Martinez KM, Mille ML, Hedman LD. Step training improves the speed of voluntary step initiation in aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003;58:46-51.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Fontani G, Lodi L, Felici A, Migliorini S, Corradeschi F. Attention in athletes of high and low experience engaged in different open skill sports. Percept Mot Skills 2006;102:791-805.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Visser I, Raijmakers ME, Molenaar PC. Characterizing sequence knowledge using online measures and hidden Markov models. Mem Cognit 2007;35:1502-17.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Grouius G. On the reduction of reaction time with mental practice. J Sport Behav 1992;15:141-57.  Back to cited text no. 22
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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